Короткотермінова робота в США (англійською)
Finding short-term employment in the U.S. can be a time-consuming, expensive and often disappointing procedure. American immigration law tends to discourage attempts to work in the U.S.. Students and members of certain professions may, however, in certain circumstances, be able to obtain short-term employment in the U.S. if they are sponsored or invited by certain organizations, firms, or individuals for the purpose of gaining practical experience or additional training in their fields.
Various types of visas are available for this purpose. It must be emphasized that obtaining a visa is a time-consuming procedure; there is no guarantee of success, and interested employers are often reluctant to assume the responsibility of applying for a visa on behalf of a prospective employee. For this reason it is important to gather information, apply to sponsoring organizations, and make plans many months in advance of the beginning of any period of practical training. The final decision on whether to issue a visa and on what kind of visa to issue lies with the visa officer at the respective U.S. Consulate.
PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING A POSITION
A. Through sponsoring organizations
Certain organizations are able to arrange a trainee position for you in the U.S.. Besides providing the visa documents (“Certificate of Eligibility” or IAP-66), they may also assist you in making travel arrangements, obtaining insurance, locating housing, etc. Although such sponsorship by an organization is the most popular method of obtaining a visa, there are certain problems to be considered. First, the number of trainee positions available is very limited. Second, the organizations are permitted to issue only a certain number of “Certificates of Eligibility”. Third, many of these organizations charge a fee for providing their services and for issuing the visa documents.
B. Through independent effort
The first step is to locate an employer in the U.S. willing to hire you. Often friends or relatives in the U.S. can be of assistance. It will probably be necessary to apply to several firms. Each application should be typewritten in English and contain the following information (some of this information is also necessary for applying for positions with foreign firms located in Russia):
1. A cover letter, including:
- Brief description of self. This should include your special interests, reasons for wanting to work in the U.S., what personal advantages you hope to gain from your employment, what you can offer to your employer, etc.
- Desired type of employment. If you must perform certain functions, be specific. Otherwise you may risk doing work which your school will not recognize.
- Desired dates of employment.
- Expected salary, if you expect to support yourself through earnings. If you can afford to work on a voluntary basis, without salary, your chances of finding a position are naturally better.
- Housing arrangements, if already made. Generally speaking, if you are able to show that you can act independently, supporting yourself, locating your own housing, arranging for your own visa, insurance, etc., in short, that you will cause your employer no problems, s/he is more likely to want to work with you.
An American resume should be typewritten, concise and easily read. It should not be more than one page.
3. If so requested, provide letters of recommendation from professors or past employers who know you well and can comment on your character and abilities with specific information.
4. Evidence of proficiency in English.
The best variant is a “Test of English as a Foreign Language” (TOEFL) score of 550 (CBT – 213) or better.
5. Explanation of your visa situation.
- Some organizations can provide an IAP-66 to persons who have found their own positions. You should apply to these organizations as early as possible, even before locating a position. After securing a trainee position, you can apply with the IAP-66 at the nearest consulate for an exchange visitor visa: J-1. A future employer may be far more willing to accept your application if s/he does not have to apply on your behalf to the INS (U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service). If such an effort on behalf of your employer becomes necessary, s/he must file a petition (form I-129B) on your behalf with INS. The petition must describe the training program and explain why such training cannot be obtained in the trainee’s home country. Only if INS gives approval (which may take from 2-3 months), can the U.S. Consulate issue an H-3 visa for practical trainees.
Being able to state in your application that you will make your own arrangements for a visa will increase your chances of employment significantly.
- If you are unable to obtain sponsorship for an IAP-66, you should indicate this in your letter of application. Many employers are unwilling to make an application for an H-3 authorization on your behalf, in particular if you only inform them of this necessity after they have agreed to employ you. Your chances of employment do not improve by keeping silent on this matter.Combining academic studies with practical training:
- If a student under an F-1 visa has been a full time student in the U.S. for nine months, s/he may request permission from INS to gain practical experience in her/his field of study either during the academic year/summer or following academic studies. In the latter case this training may not exceed a period of 12 months. A student studying under a J-1 visa in the U.S. may request authorization from his/her sponsor to engage in study related practical training during the academic year/summer or to remain in the U.S. after completion of studies for the purpose of practical training for a period not to exceed 18 months.